Every competent history of 20th Century moral philosophy begins with a discussion of G. E. Moore’s Open Question Argument (or “OQA”). (Premise 2) A cognitively sound and competent speaker of English (or whatever language the OQA is made in) can understand that Action X* produces X, yet not pursue X*. In response to this, the open question argument can be reformulated. those actions that maximize utility. pleasure) or meta-physical (e.g. Thus Moore begs the question in the second premise. Despite these challenges, some contemporary philosophers claim that the core of Moore’s argument can be salvaged. Open question argument: Whenever identity of the good with a natural property is claimed, the question of value that always remains is – but is it really good? Internalism is supported by the Belief-Desire-Intention model of motivation, whereby desire (i.e. it is an open question). It has motivated very diverse metaethical theories, such as non-cognitivism, intuitionism, and anti-realist theories. Thus, X (i.e. is meaningless. [3] Thus, if we understand Concept C, and Concept C* can be analysed in terms of Concept C, then we should grasp concept C* by virtue of our understanding of Concept C. Yet it is obvious that such understanding of Concept C* only comes about through the analysis proper. [2] The Darwall-Gibbard-Railton reformulation argues for the impossibility of equating a moral property with a non-moral one using the internalist theory of motivation. Another problem with the a posteriori moral search is that we lack an epistemic account of how we access moral facts. But what the Open Question Argument is supposed to rule out is that “good” and “ ” pick out, in virtue of semantic equivalence, not two distinct and … The Frege sense-reference distinction can understood in layman's terms by using the analogy of the Masked Man. Moore was a British philosopher who outlined his theory in Principia Ethica. 1 Minute Drucken Teilen Metzler Lexikon Philosophie: Open-question-argument Anzeige (Argument der offenen Frage). (e.g., “pleasure”). the object itself). [1] Since analytic equivalency, for two objects X and Y, logically results in the question "Is it true that X is Y?" Let’s dive right in with the Philosophy revision! Obviously, analytic equivalency is of no relevance here. According to a standard view, this argument set the stage for the next hundred years of philosophical reflection on the meanings of the terms of [4] Thus, we can understand a claim like "goodness is identical with pleasure" as an a posteriori identity claim similar to "Water is H2O". This evidently presupposes the internalist theory of motivation (i.e. that some proposition is true) combine to form intention, and thereby, action. (Conclusion) X is not (analytically equivalent to) good. An explanation of Bertrand Russell's Barren Tautology argument and G. E. Moore's Open Question against goodness as a property. It is assumed that analytic equivalency will result in meaningless analysis. To argue for the special motivational effects of moral beliefs is to commit the fallacy of special pleading. One was the realistthesis that moral and more generally normative judgements – likemany of his contemporaries, Moore did not distinguish the two —are objectively true or false. Mathematics would be the prime example: mathematics is tautological and its claims are true by definition, yet we can develop new mathematical conceptions and theorems. being meaningless (by Moore's own argument), to say that the question is meaningless is to concede analytic equivalency. In Defence of the Open Question Argument. pleasure) or supernatural (e.g. But that does not lead us to conclude that water is not H2O. that some proposition ought to be made or kept true) and belief (i.e. Every competent history of 20th Century moral philosophy begins with a discussion of G. E. Moore's Open Question Argument (or "OQA"). can be meaningful. However, "Is the morning star the same thing as the evening star?" Springer, Dordrecht. In the century since its introduction, the open question argument has faced a battery of objections. is an open question; the question cannot be deduced from the conceptual terms alone. Access to the full content is only available to members of institutions that have purchased access. oughts) that exist in the natural world (of facts), is highly queer, and we ought to favour a completely naturalistic explanation instead.[7]. would be a closed question. Ethical naturalism is the view that goodness, rightness, etc. This is discovered by empirical investigation. The matter is an empirical one, which the citizen must investigate a priori. is not meaningless (i.e. God's command). God's command). [5] For example, they argue that since right actions contingently have certain effects e.g. This is a closed statement for any mathematical equation. (Premise 1) If X is good, then X will in itself motivate an individual to pursue it. pleasure) or meta-physical (e.g. It is, however, unclear what this intuition amounts to. assumes the conclusion in a premise) was first raised by W. pleasure) or meta-physical (e.g. Such a question is an open question if a conceptually competent speaker can question this; otherwise the question is closed. We can then conclude that we have learned that "right" refers to "maximizing utility" through a posteriori means. I have just added archive links to one external link on Open-question argument. being causally responsible for a tendency towards social stability—so it follows we can fix the term "right" refer to the empirical description "the property of acts, whatever it is, that is causally responsible for their tendency towards social stability. As I understand it, the open question argument allegedly creates a problem for certain reductive theories of genuinely normative properties (such as the goodness or ought-to-be-doneness of an action) to certain descriptive or non-normative properties (such as caused pain-minimization). The Open Question Argument is a philosophical argument put forward by British philosopher G. E. Moore in §13 of Principia Ethica (1903), to refute the equating of the property good with some non-moral property, whether naturalistic (e.g. God's command). The Knowledge Argument, the Open Question Argument, and the Moral Problem November 2009 Synthese 171(1):25-45 DOI: 10.1007/s11229-008-9378-7 … This is the epistemic aspect of Mackie's Argument from Queerness. Caj Strandberg - 2004 - The Journal of Ethics 8 (2):179-196. He assumes that the question is a meaningful one (i.e. Shortly before (in section §11), Moore said if you define good as pleasure (or any other naturalistic property) you could substitute “good” for “pleasure” anywhere it occurs. I always thought the Open Question Argument, whatever its merits, depended on the identity of properties. Open-question argument From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigation Jump to search The open-question argument is a philosophical argument put forward by British philosopher G. E. Moore in §13 of Principia Ethica (1903), to refute the equating of the property of goodness with some non-moral property, X, whether natural (e.g. Similarly, many moral naturalists argue that "rightness" can be discovered as an a posteriori truth, by investigating the different claims, like that of pleasure being the good, or of duty being the good. God's command). You may redistribute it, verbatim or modified, providing Frankena. You may add {{ cbignore }} after the link to keep me from modifying it, if I keep adding bad data, but formatting bugs should be reported instead. The open question argument is a very influential argument. The idea that Moore begs the question (i.e. This paper introduces the two most influential semantic challenges to normative realism: the open question argument, and the Moral Twin Earth argument. formulation by Moore In ethics: Moore and the naturalistic fallacy ”) The “open-question argument,” as it came to be known, was in fact used by Sidgwick and to some extent by the 18th-century intuitionists, but Moore’s statement of it somehow caught the imagination of philosophers during the first half of the 20th century. The main assumption within the open question argument can be found within premise 1. The argument takes the form of syllogistic modus tollens: (2003) An Introduction to Contemporary Metaethics (Great Britain: Polity), The Blackwell Guide to Ethical Theory, by Hugh LaFollette (Editor), p. 28, Mackie, J. L. (1977) Ethics: Inventing Right and Wrong (Great Britain: Penguin Books), TIP: The Industrial-Organizational Psychologist, Tutorials in Quantitative Methods for Psychology, http://www.alonzofyfe.com/article_du.shtml, https://psychology.wikia.org/wiki/Open_question_argument?oldid=137648. Russell 's Barren Tautology argument and G. E. Moore 's own argument,... Of Moore ’ s still controversial whether good is the view that goodness, rightness, etc?. 'S terms by using the analogy of the Masked Man a closed statement any! Who outlined his theory in Principia Ethica, `` is the heart of G.E [ 5 ] with this for. Sorts of properties that can be found within premise 1 does not lead to... Attacked on the identity of properties that can be investigated by the Belief-Desire-Intention model motivation. Queerness, moral values ( i.e ; the question can not be from. “ is X good? What is ‘ good ’ influential argument Moore to! 8 ( 2 ):179-196 in itself motivate an individual to pursue it redness! 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