my station and its duties
Skelton On Sidgwick’s “My Station and Its Duties” 187. Stoics Arts & Humanities. Common morality is a stage of the development of human spirit towards true Morality. Harmondsworth: Allen Lane. As a member of society where honour killing is a traditional way of purifying the family, a parent knows what he is expected to do and why; he knows his duty, and he knows that he is justified by the long history of his society and its values. The theory’s limitations consist in the reduction of morality to existing social institutions: “We have thus seen the community to be the real moral idea, to be stronger than the theories and the practice of its members against it, and to give us self-realization. F.H. The distinction between social and moral points of view is straightforward in Bradley (1999), where he opposes social organism to morality: “Self-realization covers everything. Third, the reduction of moral norms to custom and law is erroneous, since “[a] man can not take his morality simply from the moral world he is in, for many reasons” (ES, 204). Candlish suggests that Bradley, acknowledging its problems, accepts the MSID theory, as it overcomes the gap between ought and is, while believing that this resolution is incomplete (1978, pp. Ethical Idealism. From within social morality, there is no way of thinking that social practices, norms, and demands are corrupt. Box 24, 00014, Helsinki, Finland, You can also search for this author in Oxford: Clarendon Press. … Hence, not existing for the organism, it does not exist for me […] though bad habits cling to and even arise in me, yet I can not but be aware myself as the reality of the good will. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Bradley [Book Review]. ), Ethics, metaphysics and religion in the thought of F.H. Below I list the most important of them, accompanied, where possible, by counter statements from ES. Bradley Studies Vol. View this article's JSTOR metadata. MY STATION AND ITS DUTIES* In taking this opportunity, which your committee has given me, of addressing the London Ethical Society, in the honor- able but gravely responsible position of their president, I have thought that I could best fulfil the duties of my station by laying before you one or two difficulties which have occurred to my mind, in thinking how we are to realize the declared aims of our … Both Pincoffs and Bradley understand virtues and duties as functional in respect of the common good of the social order. In terms of the more recent debates aboutLiberal neutralit… Norman, R. (1983). Anyone who accepts the MSID normative and moral theses is bound to think that, at least when justified by custom, they are good. In A. Manser & G. Stock (Eds. The acceptability of these values is independent of one’s preferences and one’s belonging to any group or institution. Many, e.g., Nicholson (1990) and Keene (2009), presuppose that the first element of the moral ideal is based on bottom-up idealization. Australian Journal of Philosophy, 56, 155-70. This means that they cannot be truly universalized and do not apply to everyone in the same way. 80-81, n. 38). The person relates the human ideal to the specific condition of her life, her relationship with others, the ideas about human excellence common for her time, as well as her intellectual and aesthetical aspirations. The moral point of view is not supplemented by the ideal; it is the ideal point of view. This chapter considers the idea of ‘my station and its duties’ as it figures in the work of T. H. Green and F. H. Bradley, who pioneered its significance. are conditional upon the existence of social institutions. Candlish (1978) and Irwin (2009) emphasize the self-realization part. In an essay written over a century ago the philosopher F.H. Next! “The Interplay of Bradley’s Social and Moral Philosophy”. In G. LaFrance (Ed. It engages with Sidgwick's remarks on the kind of ethical expertise that the moral philosopher possesses and on his approach to practical ethics generally. To troubleshoot, please check our Bradley, J. My Station and Its Duties Hardcover – December 31, 1846 by By The Author Of "The Last Day Of The Week" (Author) And Did Kant Think It Does? They are non-universalizable and, therefore, non-morally normative commands, or social commands (Stern 2013), justified by the customs that I accept. 129-130 n. 1). I am thankful to Timo Airaksinen, William Mander, Elizabeth Frazer, Peter Nicholson, and James Connelly for their comments on the drafts of this paper. The chief engineer oversees the technical elements of the broadcast. Second, the reduction of the moral community to existing social communities is unjustified: [I]f we accept … the fact that the essence of a man involves identity with others,Footnote 21 the question what the final reality of that identity is, is still left unanswered: we should still have to ask what is the higher whole in which the individual is a function, and in which the relative wholes subsist, and to inquire whether that community is, or can be, a visible community at all. Lewiston, New York: Edwin Mellen Press. E.g., Wollheim (1969), Nicholson (1990), and Keene (2009) do not differentiate between (b) and (d) as they claim that the moral ideal includes existing social duties. If you think you should have access to this title, please contact your librarian. According to Wollheim, Bradley offers an “extended” MSID theory, according to which “[t]he first and … most important contribution [to the good self] comes from one’s station and its duties” (1969, 246–47). Princeton: Princeton University Press. Ethical Studies: Selected Studies. Note, Bradley does not say that one must not obey when the society is in a rotten state. The moral ideal is a personalized ideal: one can only adopt an ideal point of view from her own perspective. My argument relies on a detailed analysis of “my station and its duties”. Wright, C. (1984). Bradley, F.H. Ideals and Illusions. an analysis of the term that spells out its specific theses and claims, explains connections between them, and specifies Bradley’s position towards them. Vol. The problem with social expectations is that they are not truly universalizable, but only in a culture-relative or contextual way: everyone belonging to the same culture (i.e., accepting the same set of institutional facts as values) must have the same set of tasks when occupying the same social role. At this point, the MSID theory may seem (Bradley accepts it only for the sake of argument) to avoid these mistakes; it gives an illusion of offering an account of the self that is both “specified” and “universalizable”. Candlish, S. (1978). My station and its duties ([Youth's library) [Cheap, Eliza] on Amazon.com. Together they form a unique fingerprint. For example, the society may be in a corrupt state or, as history shows, just bad and, thus, its demands may be bad as well. One must be able to connect specific social requirements with the values by which the given society justifies the requirements (internal values), and then be able to compare this value to another value, which is independent from the normative code of her society (external values). The ideal thesis that holds that morality consists of the realization of the self, identified with the moral ideal. Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: November 2015, DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198722298.001.0001, PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). By F.H. N. Boyle, L. Disley, I. Coper (Eds. The moral goal is the identification with and “the realization of the good will which is superior to ourselves” (ES, 162). Moreover, the state may be in “a confused or rotten condition, so that right and might do not always go together” (ES, 204). If my interpretation is valid, then the important—albeit latent—message that Bradley tries to give us with his confusing analyses of “my station and its duties” is: any demand that others put on us in virtue of our relations to them can be regarded as a moral demand when it is justified from the ideal point of view. (1981). Here are the most important of his reasons. 100-1), James Bradley suggests that the MSID theory, which “represents the first theoretical elaboration of the nascent vocational ethic of service which went hand-in hand with the newly emergent ‘professions’” and is based on “the ethical self-definition of the expanding professional middle-classes in order to secure … the ‘organic’ interpretation of self and society” is “condemned” in ES, inter alia, because Bradley “finds it impossible ethically to legitimate any prevailing social order” (1996, pp. Note another implication of Bradley’s words: if one judges that a particular social demand is bad, one ought not to perform this act, despite its being one’s positional duty. New York, Oxford University Press. He temporarily adopts the point of view he is discussing, writing as if he has already accepted it. Bell, D. (1984). The good news is that, due to the work of Wollheim (1969, 1962), Candlish (1978), and Nicholson (1990), the vulgar view (e.g., Rashdall 1907, Sabine 1915, Santayana 1933, Stebbing 1948, Krook 1959) identifying Bradley’s moral views with the theory that he describes as “my station and its duties” is no longer accepted,Footnote 5 and Bradley’s connection with conservativismFootnote 6 and communitarianism,Footnote 7 if not dismissed, is no longer taken for granted. This is done for the sake of argument. He wasthe fourth child and eldest surviving son of Charles Bradley, aprominent Evangelical preacher, and his second wife, Emma Linton. FAQs Oxford: Oxford University Press. Bradley is warning that we should not follow social commands unreflectively; otherwise, we risk doing something that is morally wrong. Mander, W.J. Banchetti, M. (1992). A worry about corruptness must be motivated by considerations other than those of social morality. You could not be signed in, please check and try again. London: Palgrave-Macmillan. For the MSID theory, there is no difference between morality and politics: “Personal morality and political and social institutions can not exist apart” (ES, 188). ES, 173); Social ontology: only relationships between people are real; therefore, only social unities (family, society, and the state) are facts (ES, 163-74); Cultural relativism: it is a fact that some cultures accept moral beliefs that conflict with those of other cultures (ES, 189).Footnote 13, II. Even though these works direct the reading of ES in a more productive and faithful direction, they still lack an analytical interpretation and thorough, detailed, explanation of “my station and its duties”, i.e. Bradley’s message is that “the actual sphere of the objective world of station and duty” must be “amended by the ideals of its own improvement that grow out of itself, and… supplemented by non-social ideals” (Nicholson 1990, pp. (i) Sittlichkeit. MY STATION AND ITS DUTIES have relations to, and duties to, others just as human beings; and this is a community which is not â a visible communityâ .24 Bradley has not been a particularly inï¬ uential moral philosopher. First, in response to the objection that MSID theory entails moral relativism (ES, 189-193),Footnote 20 Bradley distinguishes between institutionalised social norms, which he also calls “ordinary morality” (ES, 226) or “common social morality”, and true “Morality” (ES, 191). Banchetti (1992) explores Hegelian overtones in the doctrine of MSID. F.H. On Bradley and communitarianism see, e.g., Simmons (2001, pp. Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'My station and its duties: Ideals and the social embeddedness of virtue'. Ideal Arts & Humanities. Such values refer to the historical facts, practices, and beliefs of people belonging to the specific society or institution, and thus are institutional facts. - 220.127.116.11. Maintyre, A. In my interpretation, Bradley suggests that it is the sanction of the moral ideal that makes a social requirement an obligation. The concept of religion in ES and its relation to morality is a topic for separate research. utilitarianism, or the view that identifies “my station and its duties” as expressive of Bradley’s ultimate position.11 8 Although Richard Wollheim recognises this point, and has persistently drawn attention to it, it strikes one as strange that he nevertheless characterises Bradley as merely negative thinker in … On ES in connection to the idea of human nature and perfectionism, see Hurka (1993). 1. Public users can however freely search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter. (Ed.) Sparked by Sidgwick’s review of ES (1876), the vulgar view gained popularity, as Keene (2009) suggests, due to Ross’s (1951) edition of ES without Essays VI-VII. . Marina Paola Banchetti - 1992 - Idealistic Studies 22 (1):11-27. Keene (2009) relates Bradley’s social and moral philosophy. I will reconstruct Bradley’s exposition of the MSID theory (Sect. Bradley’s Moral Psychology. 1&2, 65-87. What is the ideal point of view? … That a moral world, being in a state of historical development, is not and can not be self-consistent; and the man must thus stand before and above inconsistencies, and reflect on them. (1990). I will be arguing that we are not, that Bradley distinguishes moral from social norms, and believes that performing a positional duty may be morally wrong. Bradley’s style is to blame for this: he uses the same phrase “my station and its duties”Footnote 1 to denote different theses throughout Ethical Studies (ES) (1962). According to Ilodigwe, Bradley introduces the ideal “in terms of which the legitimate demands of these varied regions of the self [empirical, transcendental, and social] are realised” and denies that “the realisation of the social self necessarily [is] the realisation of the ideal self, except the social self is in conformity with its ideal self” (2004, p. 68).Footnote 12. a possible world in which reality is a complete expression of the value. More specifically, there are two important aspects of moral obligation. (iii) Religion. (1951). It is most usually assumed that in tying obligations to social roles, the British Idealists were offering what the chapter calls an identificatory account of obligation: that is, acting in a certain way has an obligatory force because it relates to a role which constitutes your identity. I will be on the road tomorrow, heading from my parents' home to my home. ), The Moral, Social and Political Philosophy of the British Idealists. Bradley, F.H. Bradley gives little (if any) explanation. 10, Nos. I support my interpretation by showing that Bradley places the ideal point of view higher than the social and requires that what society demands from us is evaluated from that higher point of view. Bradley, Ethical Studies, and Dialectic: Self-Realisation and its Equivocations. She has to abandon the social point of view and evaluate social values from a higher point of view, ensuring that they are not morally reprehensible. Google Scholar. In F.H. The theory offers a secure and easy way of being regarded as good by removing responsibility for any act exceeding social expectation and making only one demand—to do our job. “Metaphysics and Ethics in Bradley’s Idealism”. The Development of Ethics. In W. Sweet (Ed. Many commentators seem to not distinguish between these four usages. Bradley. This is the stage of ideal morality. The latter I take to mean traditional beliefs about what is necessary for a successful performance of social roles together with corresponding social practices, which have been turned into a standard. My Station and its Duties. I. I suggest that “my station and its duties” is a rubric embracing a bundle of claims and theses: some Bradley accepts, some he denies; some are a part of the MSID theory, some belong to his critique of the MSID theory. Searle, J.R. (1995). Bradley tells us that the MSID theory denies the moral relevance of emotions, aspirations, desires and interests, as well as “visions of superhuman morality, … ideal societies, and … practical ‘ideals’ generally”. The Journal of Philosophy, Psychology and Scientific Methods, 21, 169-77. Here the station which is, is realized in me. Finally, according to the MSID theory, positional duties, while prescribing specific courses of action, depending on the occupied role, are in some sense universalizable (everyone having the same social roles as me would have the same duties). For Nicholson, Bradley, despite believing that the MSID theory cannot explain the content of our ideal selves, does not reject the MSID theory because it “supplies the larger, and the most important, part of [their] content” (1990, p. 33). Macintyre (1994) compares Bradley and Pincoff. This prevailing approach has a weakness. 3). Compare to the communitarian “normative independency thesis”, which holds that local social practices have an inherent ability to generate obligation (Simmons 2001, p. 81). This passage is crucial for understanding the relationship between positional duties and moral obligation in ES: It is necessary to remark that the community in which [the moral man] is a member may be in a confused or rotten condition, so that in it right and might do not always go together. This amounts to saying that my performing an act must not contradict the ideal of the person that I aspire to be. The Construction of Social Reality. Bradley, I believe, rejects most of MSID’s normative and descriptive claims, as well as its bottom-up thesis. He says one cannot obey blindly, because the society may be in a corrupt state. [Counter claims: morality cannot be reduced to norms of existing society (ES, 204) and moral goodness is a matter of correspondence to the ideal (ES, 205, 219). Moral Principles and Political Obligation. Babushkina, D. Bradley’s “my station and its duties” and its moral (in)significance. Bottom-up ideal thesis, according to which what ought to be is reduced to what is: the existing social order is the moral ideal (e.g., ES, 201). Believing that she is good just so long as she is performing her positional duties is a form of self-delusion or extreme faith. In order for Train Operating Companies such as South Eastern, CrossRail, EuroStar, Virgin Trains and West Coast Railways to operate effectively, their customer service must be the best it can be. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. Unit of Social and Moral Philosophy, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Helsinki, Unioninkatu 40 A, P.O. Thanks, as always, for reading, for reviewing, and for PM-ing. My Station and Its Duties. The Theory of Good and Evil. The generic descriptive thesis that it is a matter of fact, supported by cultural and historical observations, that society has authority over an individual, determining what she is and, through laws and custom, dictating what she ought to do. Stebbing, L. (1948). It is because ‘my station and its duties’ teaches us to identify others and ourselves with the station we fill; to consider that as good, and by virtue of that to consider others and ourselves good too. Warnock, M. (1971). Timmons, M. (2002). ), Ethics and Basic Rights. Introduction. Brink (2007) points to problems with Bradley’s Essay V, demonstrating the difference between Green and Bradley. The moral self is defined in terms of social roles, having specific or “objective” duties that are prescribed by existing social institutions and justified by custom. What does it mean to assume an ideal point of view? Oxford: Clarendon Press. ), Ethics, Metaphysics and Religion in the Thought of F.H. contact us Second, moral obligation has a universal attribution: when a person has a moral obligation to perform a certain action, this means, inter alia, that anyone in the same situation would have the same obligation. This chapter considers the idea of ‘my station and its duties’ as it figures in the work of T. H. Green and F. H. Bradley, who pioneered its significance. The Moral Philosophers: An Introduction to Ethics. Determining whether our society is in a corrupt state involves evaluation, which must be conducted with reference to a normative system which is external to the evaluated normative system and subjects it. Nicholson, P.P. (2011). Perfectionism and the Common Good. Introducing the theory, Bradley sets out to examine the thirdFootnote 18 alternative account of moral personhood.Footnote 19 Hedonism (Essay III) and Kantianism (Essay VI) proved unsatisfactory: the former reduces the self to a bundle of sensations and cannot be universalized, while the latter reduces it to a principle which is too perfect to be realized (see ES, 160). The modern-day cop is equipped with a laptop computer, cell phone and cameras for collecting evidence--all devices that allow him to perform most duties from the patrol car. Wollheim, R. (1962). The marketing department makes sure the radio station is well publicized; its duties include initiating community events and partnerships. In W. J. Mander & S. Panagakou (Eds. For instance, the MSID theory derives the normative thesis (and specific claims about what one ought to do and which actions/persons are right/good) from the descriptive thesis (statements about a matter of fact) because the theory employs the bottom-up idealization (reducing what ought to be to what is). New York: Rowman & Littlefield. Ideal morality is “no longer relative to the societies in which we live”. Bradley’s Idealist Ethics. The Political Philosophy of the British Idealists. moral obligation, social roles, T. H. Green, F. H. Bradley, Hegelian ethics, social command. Bristol: Thoemmes. I will demonstrate that the relationship between positional duties and moral obligation in ES is properly approached via the normative concept of the moral ideal and the revised MSID thesis (Sects. The presentation of “my station and its duties” and its ethical implications in the secondary literature is hardly satisfactory. In their descriptive aspect, positional duties specify the content of my duty. Just the presence of a police station can make a community or neighborhood safer, regardless of what's inside it. Whatever is demanded from the person in the form of a positional duty is always justified, e.g., with a reference to a custom or value that is accepted by the majority. Zeitschrift für Ethik und Moralphilosophie My Station and Its Virtues. This rhetorical strategy allows the presentation of arguments as if they were coming from the doctrine’s adherent. 2) and that the correct approach should start with clarifying the multitude of theses and claims that the phrase refers to throughout Essays V‑VI (Sect. I have at least two reasons to think so: Bradley’s criticism of the reduction of ought to is, and what can be seen as an argumentum ad absurdum showing that accepting the MSID theory yields serious moral problems.
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